Dark Matter


The theory of dark matter stems from the observation that the rotational velocities of galaxies and the velocities of galaxies within clusters are much greater than can be explained by the gravitational field due to the mass of the stars and gas clouds, or what is referred to as baryonic matter. In the standard theory of dark matter it is hypothesized that non-baryonic particles, referred to as WIMP's (Weak Interacting Massive Particles), provide the additional gravitational field required. However, such non-baryonic particles have not been detected. In addition, standard dark matter theory does not agree with the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relationship (BTFR). The BTFR is an empirical relationship between the baryonic mass of a galaxy and its rotational velocity.

I have purposed an alternative to the standard dark matter theory. In my most recent papers a model of gravitational anti-screening is presented. In this model baryonic masses are surrounded by a sea of virtual mass dipoles. This is analogous to quantum electrodynamic theory where charges are surrounded by a sea of virtual electric dipoles. In QED the virtual electric dipoles result in a screening effect that leads to the value of the observed charge of a particle being less than its actual bare charge. In the gravitational case the virtual mass dipoles result in an anti-screening effect and in the case of galaxies leads to the observed mass being greater than its baryonic mass. The theory leads to agreement with with the rotation curve of the Galaxy, observed features in the rotation curves of other spiral galaxies, the velocity dispersions and shear values for the Coma cluster, and the line-of-sight velocity difference of binary galaxies. The BTFR is a natural consequence of the theory and the theory has also been shown to agree with a geometrically flat universe and to lead to an accelerated universal expansion.

My publications relating to my theory are as follows:

Gravitational anti-screening and binary galaxies; Penner, A.R., 2017, Astrophysics and Space Science, 362 (80)

Gravitational anti-screening as an alternative to the LCDM model; Penner, A.R., 2016, Astrophysics and Space Science, 361 (361)

Gravitational anti-screening as an alternative to dark matter; Penner, A.R., 2016, Astrophysics and Space Science, 361 (4)

Induced energy polarization of the vacuum and the resulting cosmology; Penner, A.R., 2014, arXiv:1405.5165[physics.gen-ph]

Induced energy polarization of the vacuum and the Coma cluster; Penner, A.R., 2013, Can. J. Phys., 91,1114

Induced energy polarization of the vacuum and the rotational curves of spiral galaxies; Penner, A.R., 2013, Can. J. Phys., 91,610

Induced energy polarization of the vacuum and the rotational curve for the Galaxy; Penner, A.R., 2013, Can. J. Phys., 91,126

Induced energy polarization of the vacuum as the source of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship and the Pioneer anomaly; Penner, A.R., 2012, Can. J. Phys., 90, 315

A model for the source of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship and the Pioneer anomaly; Penner, A.R., 2011, Can. J. Phys., 89, 841